Ulun Danu Batur Temple and Lake Batur is located Mount Batur in Kintamani, Bangli, Bali Indonesia, since in the set as a World Cultural Heritage in two years ago by UNESCO, and must be protected preservation, its existence is now evaluated by ICOMOS and ICCROM team. Is one of the agencies under the UNESCO, in charge of cultural heritage.
The team evaluated the presence of Ulun Danu Batur Temple and Lake Batur after designated as one of the world's cultural heritage. The evaluation team did the control and review to ensure the continuity and sustainability of these sites. The evaluation team saw the situation and the environment around the site and the involvement of citizens and local governments in maintaining the existence and preservation of these sites.
Lake Batur including type of active caldera lake located at an altitude of 1,050 meters above sea level. Lake Batur water comes from rain water and permeation of water from the mountains. Lake Batur is located between 1000 m above sea level. The topography is undulating to mountainous, with physiographic region and volcanic caldera classified valley.
Most of the land around the lake is used as a moor which reached 49.35 %, this land is used for cultivation of vegetables and horticulture, especially in the western and southern parts of the lake. Around the lake there is the distribution of forests in the form of community forests and state forests. Distribution of state forests around the lake covers an area of 3281.7 hectares ( 27.84 % ), including protected areas in the north and south of the lake and forest natural park in the western part. Land devoted to gardens by 4.59 %, land for yard only 2,22 % and the remainder in the form of other land that is critical area of land former Mount Batur.
Please know that Lake Batur has now been contaminated by household waste from existing settlements around the lake. Waste that threatens the ecosystem in the lake. Toxicity in the water level of the lake is above normal. So it needs serious treatment to restore the lake water hygiene. Water pollution and eutrophication caused by:
- Water pollution by sewage and garbage.
- Increased eutrophication resulting from fertilizer and pesticide pollution by agricultural activities.
- The rapid development of floating net cages.
- The use of fishing nets which are not environmentally friendly.
- Phosphate levels on average 0.053 to 0.153 ppm ( eutrofic ).
- And many more causes of pollution in Lake Batur.
In addition, there are a lot of damage that occurred in the vicinity of Lake Batur. The damages around Lake Batur caused by:
- Illegal logging, forest fires ( Erosion and Sedimentation ).
- Erosion happens to Watershed ( DTA ) Lake Batur is based on the depth of soil, consisting of : erosion are occurring due to the use of forest land with a slope of 30-45 % with a closing rate of 60 %, severe erosion on forest land use bush has a slope of 30-45 % and dry land with slope 15 -30 %.
- The condition of sedimentation due to the exploitation of land in areas prone to landslides tilted so.
- Damage to forest land.
- Cultivation of dry land on the slope of 15-30 %.
Ulun Danu Batur Temple is considered the most important temple in Bali after Besakih Temple. This temple has a history and a very sacred by the Balinese Hindu community. The temple is a place of worship for forty- five villages in Bali Indonesia, with the village of Batur as primarily responsible. In religious ceremonies and customs, these villages are obliged to provide the materials needed for the ceremony.
Ulun Danu Batur Temple is part of the concept of Tri Hita Karana in agricultural systems in Bali Indonesia. Subak is a traditional organization that regulates irrigation system in Bali. Ulun Danu Batur Temple is Subak system part of a very large and spacious. Lake Batur as the main water source in Subak system. All nature in Bali Indonesia have a bond and a very close relationship to the preservation of culture and religion in Bali.